Labour force participation
Informal labour market
Women empowerment

How to Cite

Sultana, H., Fatima, A., & Alam, S. (2020). FEMALE OWNED HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISES IN PAKISTAN. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 59(2), 13–39. Retrieved from https://www.jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/466


Female entrepreneurship is steadily increasing around the world especially in developing countries where lack of job opportunities has forced people toward self-employment, Pakistan being no exception. Females in Pakistan are now actively participating in economic activities to get recognition of their abilities and to generate employment opportunities. Given the changing role of females over time, the study seeks the answer to a very important question i.e Are females in Pakistan are motivated towards self-employment then being employed if yes then what is the magnitude and areas/sectors they are mainly engaged in? Specifically, this study aims to analyze the magnitude of the female-headed household enterprises in Pakistan by sector province, and region. In addition study evaluates the socio-economic background influencing their decision to own and operate household enterprise – or becoming self-employed. For, the assessment purpose study has used cross-sectional data of the PSLM/HIES (Pakistan Social Living Standard Measurements/Household Integrated Economic Survey) for the period 2018-2019. Finings indicates that the majority of self-employed females in Pakistan are engaged in small-medium enterprises. Province wise break up shows, Punjab has the most female-owned household enterprises. The present study is unique in the sense that sector-wise magnitude by province and region for female entrepreneurs has not been comprehensively documented earlier.

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