Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-04-06T18:58:25+00:00 Prof Dr Farah Iqbal Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi, is an HEC recognized 'Y' category, double blind international peer review, multi-disciplinary Social Sciences journal. It is an open access journal and published biannually by the Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi in the month of June and December. The journal covers a wide array of topics from different learned scholars, ranging from international relations, psychology, political science and education to criminology. The studies are conducted on the broad spectrum of the topics ranging from socio cultural, economic and political changes, human behavior, globalization and financial crimes as well. All rights reserved.</p> <p><a href=""><strong>Invitation for a Book Review.</strong></a></p> MUHAMMAD: A PROPHET FOR OUR TIME 2021-04-06T18:58:25+00:00 Kashif Iqbal <p>Book Name MUHAMMAD: A PROPHET FOR OUR TIME</p> <p>Review written by Mr Kashif Iqbal</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 THE INTERMINGLING OF ETHNONATIONALIST AND LEFTIST POLITICS: THE RESISTANCE AGAINST THE ONE UNIT SCHEME IN SINDH 2021-03-30T11:59:18+00:00 Amjad Ali <p><em>This paper argues that ethnonational politics became the major obstruction for the class struggle of left-wing parties against the One-Unit scheme, from 1955 to 1958</em><em>. The overwhelming emphasis on the One-Unit scheme pushed the left-wing parties away from the Marxist agenda. And because of this focus on ethno-national issue, the leftist parties failed to mobilize masses against the oppressive system. The left did not come up with the independent class struggle and remain attached with regional politics. Leftists’ alliance with the National Awami Party (NAP) was a political mistake because the NAP was relatively large political party with influential leaders. NAP overshadowed the leftist parties and used smaller parties for its own political goals. Eventually, the left became the instrument of NAP. This study explains ethnonational politics as one of the causes for the failure of leftist struggle in Sindh.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 FEMALE OWNED HOUSEHOLD ENTERPRISES IN PAKISTAN 2021-03-30T12:03:22+00:00 Humera Sultana Ambreen Fatima Shaista Alam <p><em>Female entrepreneurship is steadily increasing around the world especially in developing countries where lack of job opportunities has forced people toward self-employment, Pakistan being no exception. Females in Pakistan are now actively participating in economic activities to get recognition of their abilities and to generate employment opportunities. Given the changing role of females over time, the study seeks the answer to a very important question i.e Are females in Pakistan are motivated towards self-employment then being employed if yes then what is the magnitude and areas/sectors they are mainly engaged in? Specifically, this study aims to analyze the magnitude of the female-headed household enterprises in Pakistan by sector province, and region. In addition study evaluates the socio-economic background influencing their decision to own and operate household enterprise – or becoming self-employed. For, the assessment purpose study has used cross-sectional data of the PSLM/HIES (Pakistan Social Living Standard Measurements/Household Integrated Economic Survey) for the period 2018-2019. Finings indicates that the majority of self-employed females in Pakistan are engaged in small-medium enterprises. Province wise break up shows, Punjab has the most female-owned household enterprises. The present study is unique in the sense that sector-wise magnitude by province and region for female entrepreneurs has not been comprehensively documented earlier.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 EXPLORING READER ENGAGEMENT THROUGH EMOTIONAL INTENSIFICATION IN THE BRIDE: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE 2020-09-21T17:19:33+00:00 Zahra Bokhari Tazanfal Tehseem Saba Zulfiqar <p><em>Readers of literary narratives undergo an emotional experience by feeling varied emotions in various ways. While going through a narrative, we assume here, a fictive reader may be absorbed because they very often believe they develop a feel what is to be felt from a perspective presented and, similarly they understand what is to be understood in a given situation and character engaged in highly textually interwoven situation. Therefore, certain techniques and devices are employed by the authors of emotional fiction to engage their readers emotionally and to create text- reader empathy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to discover the lexico-grammatical texturing of emotional fiction using the Corpus Stylistics Framework for identifying emotional intensity (Toolan, 2012) based on Systemic Functional Linguistics (Halliday, 1994) to unveil how this particular texturing causes emotional immersion. Through a lexico-grammatical analysis of the selected passages of ‘The Bride’, it is established that by using particular lexical choices and devices, the author engages the reader emotionally and therefore, enhances readers’ involvement in the text. Hence, it supports our claim that the lexicogrammar of the emotional passages is instrumentally di?erent for projecting emotionally engaged responses.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Zahra Bokhari, Dr. Tazanfal Tehseem THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PROTECTION OF LABOUR RIGHTS AND EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT: KNOWING THE RIGHTS AFTER DEVOLUTION POWER 2020-12-28T06:56:42+00:00 Nizakat Ali Bhand Touseef Iqbal Liaquat Ali Bhand <p><em>The constitution of Pakistan contains wide range of provisions for the protection of labour rights. Pakistan has been bestowed with 70 labour laws along with 90 rules and regulations thereunder. In spite of these labour laws along with rules and regulations, labour force is facing multifarious challenges that posit direct threat to their legal recognised rights. In this regard this study was carried out to study the main hurdles that labour rights encountered in historical perspective. Moreover, in the wake of devolution plan through 18<sup>th</sup> amendment to the constitution of Pakistan, what problems in respect of enforceability and legality have arisen? Labour laws promulgated in various Pakistani regimes have been discussed to figure out what really prevented successive governments to ensure minimum protection to labour strata of the nations. The article concludes with some recommendation that are sin-qua-non in current globalization where rights have emerged as the most sacred instruments in the hands of weaker portion of a society. </em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nizakat Ali Bhand, Dr. Touseef Iqbal, Liaquat Ali Bhand INSTRUMENTALIZATION OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN LYARI: THE ROLE OF STATE INSTITUTIONS, POLITICAL PARTIES AND CRIMINAL GANGS 2021-03-30T12:09:51+00:00 Amir Ahmed Farooqui Moonis Ahmar <p><em>While research on political violence often focuses on its outcome, there is little attention to the process of political violence. Filling the knowledge gap, the present research applies the theory of instrumentalism to understand political violence as a means to achieve certain political ends. The research is a qualitative case study on Lyari, which was a comparatively peaceful neighborhood in Karachi but transformed into a violent no-go area during 2000s. The paper describes the process of instrumentalization of political violence in Lyari with the objective of outlining the relationship of three key actors – political parties, state authorities, and criminal gangs – using violence for their respective interests. The paper explains how the convergence of their interests influenced the intensity of political violence and converted it into an ethnic conflict. </em><em>Hence, it expands the literature on political violence by outlining the complexities of the real world where multiple political actors simultaneously use violence to achieve varied objectives that sometimes compliment and sometimes clashes with each other, resulting in further extension of violence.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 CODE SWITCHING IN EDITORIAL OF URDU NEWSPAPER 2021-03-30T12:25:56+00:00 Kausar Rahmati Khan Masroor Khanum <p><em>Code switching is defined as the use of two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation. It is a general phenomenon in Pakistani society. This research was conducted through a qualitative descriptive method; it produces descriptive data in the form of code switched sentences from editorial of Urdu newspaper. In this research paper I discussed code switching in editorial of an Urdu newspaper. Daily Khabrain Newspaper was selected for this purpose. One week newspapers were collected for research from 1<sup>st</sup> January, 2020 to 7<sup>th</sup> January, 2020 to analyze code switching in editorial. In this research paper I discussed code switching in editorial of an Urdu newspaper. </em><em>Aims and Objectives </em><em>are; in this research paper I discussed code switching in editorial of an Urdu newspaper. </em><em>Research Question was what type of code switching is in editorial in Daily Khabrain Newspaper? </em><em>Daily Khabrain Newspaper from first January 2020 to 7th January 2020 was collected for the analysis of language or code switching and its type in editorial. </em><em>Through the analysis of data of newspaper it can be concluded that </em><em>the type of code switching was intra sentential, word code switching and total integrated Urdu.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 DEAL WITH THE FALLOUT ECONOMIC DISORDER IN SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES FROM COVID-19 2021-03-03T07:56:50+00:00 Umair Baig Batool Huzaifah Darukhanawalla Zeba Shariff Khan <p><em>The prime objective of this study is to discuss the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis concerning Pakistan and globally across South Asian developing countries. It also demonstrates those economic indicators through which the economic performance of the countries is influenced considering the prospective global economic costs of COVID-19 under different scenarios. The study systematically reviewed the literature on historical pandemic crises and the most recent Covid-19 fallout economic disorder in South Asian countries. Considering the history of human civilization, there are varied instances of severe epidemics that are caused by numerous viruses. It is observed that the prevailing outbreak of COVID-19 has eventually affected large scale manufacturing, service sectors and arose supply side constraint to an extent. On the contrary, GDP and consumption declined sharply. Furthermore, sudden loss of service sector jobs and the rise in food prices have created an economic crisis for developing countries of South Asia. The study attempts to discuss the policy responses given by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, The State Bank of Pakistan, and the Ministry of finance, Pakistan encountered due to the deteriorating international environment, fiscal stress, and difficulties in financial liquidity markets and provides relevant policies for the better prospect of Pakistan's economy after comparing it with other South Asian countries affected by this pandemic vulnerabilities. </em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Umair Baig, Batool Huzaifah Darukhanawalla, Zeba Shariff Khan THE GENDER JUSTICE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF CULTURE OF PEACE 2021-03-21T07:19:49+00:00 Shamila Saheba Faruqi Ghous Mohammed <p><em>In 2017, more than one billion females needed protection from sexual violence by a private accomplice, while an expected 1.5 billion were without lawful assurance against sexual harassment at work. While there is tremendously justified consideration on finishing violence, the regions of family equity and corrective equity, among others, have been moderately ignored. Around the planet, oppressive normal practices, and laws, compounded by numerous layers of inconvenience – because of neediness, nationality, inability, topography, and transient status – stay amazing obstructions to rise to rights and openings for countless ladies. Today, the world faces the critical assignment of quickening progress. The security of females and their financial, political and social status in Pakistan are obstructed by lethargic state establishments, unfair enactment, and rigid social inclinations; their occupations and lives are also destabilized by savage radicalism. Despite the fact that, Admittance to value for everything is a fundamental litmus preliminary of quiet, just, and far-reaching social orders and a sine qua non extensive correspondence, essential freedoms, and reasonable unforeseen development. Across for the globe, Females' requests for responsibility for infringement and misuses have acquired more prominent consideration than at any other time. This is a turning point for gender equality, with missions and developments overall like MeToo, NiUnaMenos and SheDecides, with ladies' walks, neighborhood and public level unsettling, and numerous legislatures and partnerships underlining their obligation to change. These developments have uncovered the persevering divergence between the guarantee of equity and the real factors on the ground, at home, in networks and in the working environment. Females keep on confronting legitimate separation, inconsistent lawful securities, and lopsided execution of existing protections.</em></p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sharmila Farooqi