Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities <p><em>The Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi, is an HEC recognized 'Y' category, double blind international peer review, multi-disciplinary Social Sciences journal. It is an open access journal and published biannually by the Faculty of Arts &amp; Social Sciences, University of Karachi in the month of June and December since 1960s. The journal covers a wide array of topics from different learned scholars, ranging from international relations, psychology, political science and education to criminology. The studies are conducted on the broad spectrum of the topics ranging from socio cultural, economic and political changes, human behavior, globalization and financial crimes as well. All rights reserved.</em></p> <p><a href=""><strong>Invitation for a Book Review.</strong></a></p> en-US (Prof Dr Farah Iqbal) (Abdul Majid Modi) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 The Nine Lives of Pakistan: Dispatches From A Divided Nation Kashif Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Kashif Iqbal Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 ENHANCEMENT OF OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH STRATEGIC HRM PRACTICES: A CASE OF BANKING INDUSTRY <p><em>Based on the Guest 1997 organizational outcome model, this explanatory study examined the effects of five dimensions of practices of HR. i.e. performance evaluation, recruitment &amp; selection, compensation &amp; reward, career opportunities within organization and training &amp; development on proximal business outcomes (Flexibility &amp; Quality of Operations). The study validates components of GUEST model by integrating between HRM dimensions and banking operations, thus strengthens the existing theoretical model of GUEST by improving the comprehensiveness as it provides analytical framework for studying HR. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized in the current study, and tested the study hypotheses by SEM to analyze the proposed conceptual model. It was found that all five chosen HR practices had significant influence on the quality of operations however for flexibility of operations, performance appraisals and career within organization have shown significant role for banking industry of the country, Pakistan. The study contributed to the construction and validation of structural. path and measurement models(MM) of SHRM practices and two selected operational competitive outcomes based on theoretical and empirical foundations, which will help progress the human resource management future researches and important implications for HR mangers, as very little work has been done on interdisciplinary framework of HR and OM specifically within context of South Asian banking Industry.</em></p> Dr Syeda Nazneen Waseem, Dr Naveed ur Rehman, Dr Mirza Amin Ul Haq Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Syeda Nazneen Waseem, Dr Naveed ur Rehman, Dr Mirza Amin Ul Haq Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE NEO-JURISPRUDENCE OF PIL IN SUPERIOR COURTS OF PAKISTAN: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRE AND POST LAWYERS’ MOVEMENT WORKING OF SUPERIOR COURTS <p><em>The dynamics of the superior judiciary in Pakistan have undergone a drastic transformation in its approach and working in post 2007 emergency followed by a landmark movement of civil and legal fraternity for restoration of constitutional supremacy. The neo-jurisprudence is being applauded and criticized at the same time. The excessive use of Suo-motto and public interest litigation at one hand and frequent judicial review of executive and legislative action on other have been the main source of contention between judiciary and other two pillars of state, legislature and executive. The Superior Court is being recognized as the ultimate savior of fundamental rights and guardian of the constitution as well as rights of the people. At the other extreme, the criticism like activist judiciary; disrespect for popular will and making rather interpreting law are most commonly attributed to Superior Judiciary. The study is qualitative in nature and presents a comparative analysis of trends in Superior Court before and after Lawyers’ movement. The study also aims in justifying the proactive approach especially in providing social justice on failure of state organs to respond to the exigency of time.</em></p> Hatim Aziz Solangi Copyright (c) 2021 Hatim Aziz Solangi Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 DETERMINANTS OF YOUTH EMIGRATION: A CASE STUDY OF KARACHI <p><em>In the last six years, more than 3.7 million people have migrated from Pakistan to seek employment, mostly in the Middle East. Approximately, 1 million people migrated from Pakistan in 2015 in contrast to 0.75 million in 2014, an increase of about 20.84%. People from all the cities of Pakistan are migrating, especially from Karachi, which is the seventh most populous city of the world and largest in Pakistan. More than 30% of Karachi’s population is youth (ages 15 –29) with 54.9% male and 45.1% female. This study finds that 48.7% of the youth in Karachi want to leave Pakistan for various reasons, including unemployment, insecurity, economic problems, lack of social support, lack of career opportunities. This high rate of outward migration from Pakistan is creating brain drain conditions, especially in the health and education sectors, where there is a shortage of skilled workforce. This paper explores and analyzes factors that are contributing to youth emigration from Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi.</em></p> Dr Ammad Zafar Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Ammad Zafar Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE AND ACADEMIC STRESS: A STUDY OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN <p>Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, Stress has become an integral part of students’ academic life due to the various internal and external expectations placed upon their shoulders. It is therefore, becomes imperative to understand the sources and impact of academic stress in order to derive adequate and efficient intervention strategies. The five dimensions of sources such as Anxiety/stress, Student’s Academic stress, Financial Constraints, Cultural dynamics, Students Performance were analyzed. This research finding is based on the responses obtained from 215 undergraduate students enrolled at a higher learning institution in Pakistan. This paper investigated the stressors, symptoms and effects that are likely to be experienced by undergraduate students in higher Studies. The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires that were randomly floated on social media during the time of COVID-19. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS.</p> Dr Faheem Akher, Dr Sobia Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Faheem Akhter, Dr Sobia Iqbal Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE PERCEIVED LEVELS OF INTOLERANCE FOR PRESS CRITICISM IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY <p><em>This study examines the existence, intensity and impacts of intolerance for Press criticism in Pakistani society. It’s generally believed that intolerance for Press criticism leads to professional and psychological complexes for the Press to play its role as a voice for unvoiced and to hold those in power accountable because the Press’s role as the Watchdog compulsively needs high capacities of tolerance in the society to understand the realities and habituate rationalism. As working journalists have to face the direct reaction from masses regarding Press criticism so this paper explores journalist’s perceptions about the presence of intolerance in the societal frame of Pakistan regarding Press’s criticism using survey technique under Likert Scale. The study also incorporates the impacts of intolerance on professionalism in media that induce threats to journalists and compel them to exercise self-censorship which ultimately results in content biases, depriving the citizens of fundamental right of expression. The conclusion provides guidelines for policy making on the subject of Press freedom and social coherence. Also, this study enhances understandings regarding the social sphere of the country and gauges the level of intolerance for media discourses.</em></p> Dr Fazli Hussain, Dr Noreen Aleem, Samreen Faisal Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Fazli Hussain, Dr Noreen Aleem, Samreen Faisal Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 WOMEN IN PAKISTAN- SOCIAL MOBILITY, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND EMPOWERMENT <p><em>The word Development is devious and captivating, however, the development path is perplexed. In most cases, the governments try to attain economic, military, technological, and infrastructural development, whereas, the power centers evade investing and working on issues of Human Development. The governments of countries like Pakistan strive to shuffle the attentiveness of the world by spending a huge amount on building the roads, on bridges, and transportation and in maximization of arms and ammunition. Human development in Pakistan has always been neglected due to various reasons. A huge population of almost a 22million having as low as 154<sup>th</sup> (out of 189 countries) position in the human development index. The patriarchal system has created the social and cultural environment that is supporting persistence male domination, remains the major obstacle in the intellectual, social, and economic growth of women. This paper addresses the conceptual and methodological aspects of human development and women’s empowerment in Pakistan, it explains the challenges and trends concerning women’s empowerment throughout Pakistan’s history, specifically in key areas such as individual, education, and health, economic and political participation, and especially Women’s limited and controlled mobility.</em></p> Sidra Ahmed, Samreen Bari, Dr Rizwana Jabeen Copyright (c) 2021 Sidra Ahmed, Samreen Bari, Dr Rizwana Jabeen Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY, SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING AND NARCISSISM AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS <p><em><strong>Background:</strong> The current study intends to enrich the content of the relationship between personality, subjective well-being, and narcissism. Previous studies have shown that extroverted individuals have higher subjective well-being. <strong>Methodology:</strong> In order to study the relationship between personality, subjective well-being, and narcissistic behavior of college students, a convenient sampling method was used to select college students; they were tested by Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), total well-being scale, and overt narcissism questionnaire (NPI16). The collected data were analyzed by t-test and correlation analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> The findings suggest that there is a positive correlation between College Students' personality type (extraversion) and subjective well-being. College students with extraversion personalities have high subjective well-being, while college students with introversion personalities have low subjective well-being. There is a positive correlation between College Students' personality type (extraversion) and narcissistic behavior. College students with extraverted personalities are more narcissistic, and college students with introverted personalities are less likely to be narcissistic. There is a positive correlation between College Students' subjective well-being and narcissistic behavior. College students with high subjective well-being are more narcissistic, and college students with low subjective well-being are less likely to be narcissistic. <strong>Contributions of the study: </strong>This study provides an important basis and Enlightenment for discussing the relationship between College Students' personalities, subjective well-being, and narcissistic behavior. College students with different personality types will feel different levels of well-being and narcissistic behavior. There is also a close relationship between College Students' overall well-being and narcissistic behavior.</em></p> Najam ul Hassan Abbasi, Mushtaque Ali Channa Copyright (c) 2021 Najam ul Hasan Abbasi, Mushtaque Ali Channa Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 STABLE BUSINESS POLICIES HELP IN ACHIEVING THE BUSINESS TARGETS: AN INVESTIGATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS BUSINESS IN DISTRICT CENTRAL, KARACHI, PAKISTAN <p><em>Expedition of the growth of a country’s economy in the wake of entrepreneurial activity is significant. As skills are utilized and knowledge is applied, the entrepreneurs establish new businesses, and the enhancement of the latter is brought about through their sagacious decision-making and ingenuity. At one end, where entrepreneurial activities have been a boon to the societal progress; they have sped up development of economies worldwide. This can be attributed to a gamut of factors, which include, societies’ expansion on the grounds of industrialization and urbanization; nurture of a culture of more information and awareness; formal training of the entrepreneurs; and, relaxed legal procedures. This study lays down emphasis on how upholding stable business policies can positively impact an entrepreneurial venture. Employing a well-developed and verified scale, data collection from 230 respondents was done on a convenience basis. The respondents chosen for this survey among whom the distribution of questionnaires was conducted were all situated in various localities of the District Central of Karachi, Pakistan; and descriptive statistics were applied on the variables pertinent for this study such as the establishment of stable business policies, continuation of the existing business policies, and achievement of the business targets based on the stable policies. It is intended that this research article shall serve to augment the scholarly literature that already exists on the subject matter that pinpoints the significance of the stable and continuous policies for an entrepreneurial business involved in the primary schooling businesses across the District Central of Karachi, Pakistan. This research paper addresses the need of having stable business policies for Pakistani entrepreneurs, and envisions itself to be one of the blueprints that can be considered by the relevant regulatory bodies while they make informed decisions. A well sketched out itinerary of initiatives could then be composed, which can assist in the meeting of the targets of entrepreneurial ventures, and eventually help in eradicating poverty from Pakistan.</em></p> Dr Muhammad Siddique, Dr Mariya Baig, Amar- ul- Haque Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Muhammad Siddique, Dr Mariya Baig, Amar- ul- Haque Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE ROLE OF HAND EMBROIDERY IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION: A CASE STUDY OF GADAP TOWN, KARACHI <p><em>This research topic is very important and shows the social causes of poverty alleviation. Poverty is today’s biggest problem in Pakistan. This research made an effort to find out and to discuss the related elements of poverty. The Researcher proposed to study problems and prospects of hand embroidery in the cottage industries, Cottage industry sector plays a dominant role in the economic development of countries. In developing countries cottage industries are especially important in the context of employment opportunities, equitable distribution of national income, balanced regional growth, and development of different areas. A sample of 70 home-based workers selected from convenience sampling in Gadap Town, Karachi. After assembling data, we found that the government is providing the required level of support to hand embroidery, Respondents cannot perform household chores along with their work and create differences in the domestic economic conditions.</em></p> Dr Siraj Basir Rind, Kinza Farooq, Shakir Adam Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Siraj Basir Rind, Kinza Farooq, Shakir Adam Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500 FORMAL LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF HEC FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION SECTOR <p><em>We are living in an era of development and innovation through research and learning. The nation that has achieved its development goals, has done through education reforms and a keen focus on strengthening its National Innovation System. In Pakistan, this role has fallen to the Higher Education Commission, commonly known as HEC. The Higher Education Commission (HEC) has attempted various activities for ceaseless improvement of the nature of advanced education as per the worldwide norms and to patch up post-auxiliary instruction to improve the instructive guidelines at the alumni level. Public Academy for Higher Education has been built up with the mean to plan and convey nonexclusive and need-based limit building and preparing programs in instructing and exploration for personnel just as a spotlight on scholastic administration and authority for the workforce and the board. Education Testing Council (ETC) has additionally been modified to normalize passage tests for the universities of Pakistan. The study focuses on the different programs run by HEC to develop the country’s formal learning program and education sector. Since its commencement, we investigate various projects created by HEC to encourage Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and build up a superior staff for this reason.</em></p> Qurat-ul-Ain Saleem, Aqil Shakoor, Dr Shabib ul Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Qurat-ul-Ain Saleem, Aqil Shakoor, Dr Shabib ul Hassan Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0500