The word Development is devious and captivating, however, the development path is perplexed. In most cases, the governments try to attain economic, military, technological, and infrastructural development, whereas, the power centers evade investing and working on issues of Human Development. The governments of countries like Pakistan strive to shuffle the attentiveness of the world by spending a huge amount on building the roads, on bridges, and transportation and in maximization of arms and ammunition. Human development in Pakistan has always been neglected due to various reasons. A huge population of almost a 22million having as low as 154th (out of 189 countries) position in the human development index. The patriarchal system has created the social and cultural environment that is supporting persistence male domination, remains the major obstacle in the intellectual, social, and economic growth of women. This paper addresses the conceptual and methodological aspects of human development and women’s empowerment in Pakistan, it explains the challenges and trends concerning women’s empowerment throughout Pakistan’s history, specifically in key areas such as individual, education, and health, economic and political participation, and especially Women’s limited and controlled mobility.
Bank, Asian Development. Women in Pakistan. Islamabad: Programs Department (West) and Programs Department (West) , ADB, 2000.
Deneulin, Sabina Alkire and Séverine. " Introducing the Human Development and Capability Approach (Chapter 2)." In An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency, by Lila Shahani Severine Deneulin, 1-22. Routledge, 2009.
Fabricio E. Balcazar, Christopher B. Keys, and Julie A. Vryhof. "Empowerment." In Introduction to Community Psychology, by Olya Glantsman, Jack F. O'Brien, and Kaitlyn N. Ramian Leonard A. Jason. Montreal, Canada: Pressbooks, 2019.
forum, World Economic. Global Gender Gap Report 2020. Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 2020.
Forum, World Economic. Social mobility. World Economic forum, 2020.
Gregorson, Tamy. Thinking Thoughtfully: Tips for YOUR Wellbeing. March 2, 2020. https://oupeltglobalblog.com/category/skills/page/2/ (accessed 10 24, 2020).
Kabeer, Naila. "Resources, Agency, Achievements:Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment." In Discussing Women’s Empowerment, by Anne Sisask, 17-57. Stockholm: Sida studies, 2001.
Lewis, Jone Johnson. harriet-beecher-stowe-quotes. 07 03, 2019. https://www.thoughtco.com/harriet-beecher-stowe-quotes-3530095 (accessed 11 05, 2020).
LUMS. Mahbubulhaq research centre. n.d. https://mhrc.lums.edu.pk/history-3 (accessed 10 31, 2020).
Nussabaum, M. Women and Human Development:A Study in Human Capabilities. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Outreach, HDRO. Human development Reports. 2020. http://hdr.undp.org/en/node/2319 (accessed 10 31, 2020).
Sen, Amartya. Development as freedom. New York: First Anchor Books, 2000.
Sen, Amrtya. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Stewart, Frances. Capabilities and Human development. New York: UNDP, 2013.
Syed, Insiya. Human rights watch. November 12, 2018. https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/11/12/shall-i-feed-my-daughter-or-educate-her/barriers-girls-education-pakistan#.
Tandon, Dr Tanu. "Women Empowerment: Perspectives and Views ." The International Journal of Indian Psychology , 2016: 6-16.
UNDP. Human Development Report. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
UNDP. United Nations Development Programme. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Venator, Richard V. Reeves and Joanna. Women and Social Mobility: Six Key Facts. April 03, 2014. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/social-mobility-memos/2014/04/03/women-and-social-mobility-six-key-facts/ (accessed 11 20, 2020).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2021 Sidra Ahmed, Samreen Bari, Dr Rizwana Jabeen