International Labour Organization (ILO)
Labour rights (LR)
Collective bargaining agent (CBA)
Industrial Disputes Act (IDA)
Industrial Disputes Ordinance (IDO)
Labour law in Pakistan

How to Cite

Bhand, N. A., Iqbal, T., & Ali Bhand, L. (2020). THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PROTECTION OF LABOUR RIGHTS AND EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT: KNOWING THE RIGHTS AFTER DEVOLUTION POWER. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 59(2), 59–75. Retrieved from


The constitution of Pakistan contains wide range of provisions for the protection of labour rights. Pakistan has been bestowed with 70 labour laws along with 90 rules and regulations thereunder. In spite of these labour laws along with rules and regulations, labour force is facing multifarious challenges that posit direct threat to their legal recognised rights. In this regard this study was carried out to study the main hurdles that labour rights encountered in historical perspective. Moreover, in the wake of devolution plan through 18th amendment to the constitution of Pakistan, what problems in respect of enforceability and legality have arisen? Labour laws promulgated in various Pakistani regimes have been discussed to figure out what really prevented successive governments to ensure minimum protection to labour strata of the nations. The article concludes with some recommendation that are sin-qua-non in current globalization where rights have emerged as the most sacred instruments in the hands of weaker portion of a society.



Ishay, Micheline R., The History of Human Rights From Ancient Times to The Globalization Era. Burkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004.

Humphreys, Cathy and others. Talking to My Mum: A Picture Workbook for Workers, Mothers and Children Affected by Domestic Abuse. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006.

Hilsdon, Anne-Marie, Martha Macintyre and Vera Mackie. Human Rights and Gender Politics: Asia Pacific Perspective. New York: Curzon Press Ltd., 2000.

Holt, Robin. Wittgenstein Politics and Human Rights. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Hopkins, Eric. Industrialization and Society: A Social History, 1830-1951. New York:

Routledge, 2000.

Harriss-White, Barbara . India Working: Essays on Society and Economy. New York:

Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Heale, M. J., Franklin D. Roosevelt. New Deal and War. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Henrard, Kristin. Minority Protection in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Human Rights,

Hagell, Ann Jeyarajah-Dent. Children Who Commit Acts Serious Interpersonal Violence: Messages for Best Practice. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2006.

Government of the Punjab. A Survey of Child Labour in Steel Furnaces and Spare Parts Manufacturing Industry, Baghbanpura, Lahore. Lahore: Labour and Manpower Department, 1998.

Frynas, Jedrzej George and Scott Pegg. Transnational Corporations and Human Rights. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Ewans, Martin. Afghanistan A New History. Lahore: Vanguard Books, 2001.

Falk, Richard A. Human Rights Horizons: The Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Fenster, Tovi. Gender, Planning and Human Rights. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Follette, Victoria M., Josef I. Ruzek and Francis R. Abueg. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma. New York: Guilford Publications, 1998.

Gilchrist, R. N. Principles of Political Science. Madras: The Subhodaya Publications Ltd., 1948.

Glendon, Mary Ann .World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House, 2001.

Government of Pakistan. Federal Bureau of Statistics Report. Islamabad: Federal Bureau of Statistics 2000 & 2018.

Grimshaw, Patricia, Katie Holmes and Marilyn Lake. Women's Rights and Human Rights: International Historical Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.

Government of Pakistan. International Labour Conference Convention-182. Islamabad:

Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, 2000.

Hick, Steven, Edward F. Halpin and Eric Hoskins (ed.). Human Rights and the Internet.

New York: Palgrave Publishers, 2000.

Khan, Zafar Ullah. Human Rights. Karachi: Pakistan Law House, 2001.

Monitoring International Labor Standards: Techniques and Sources of Information.

Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2004.

Likosky, Michael B. Privatising Development: Transnational Law, Infrastructure and

Human Rights. Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005

Krug, Etienne and others. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

Zamir Ahmed. The Quranic Sociology of Crime.

Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf. Women, Gender and Work: What is Equality and How Do We Get There?. Geneva: International Labour Office Bureau International du Travail, 2001.

Kovic, Christine Marie. Mayan Voices for Human Rights: Displaced Catholics in

Highland Chiapas. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Langley, Winston E. Encyclopedia of Human Rights Issues since 1945. Westport, Conn.:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

Lerner, Natan. Religion, Secular Beliefs and Human Rights: 25 Years after the 1981

Declaration. Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006.

Mitchell, Neil J. Agents of Atrocity: Leaders, Followers, and the Violation of Human

Rights in Civil War. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Provost, Rene. International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Pati, R. N. Rehabilitation of Child Laborers in India. New Delhi: S.B. Nangia for Ashish Publishing House, 1990.

Abdullah Yusufi.. The Holy Quran, Translation and Commentary,

Ramcharan, Bertrand G. Judicial Protection of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:

Cases and Materials. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005.

Richardson, Sue and Heather Bacon. Creative Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: Challenges and Dilemmas. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2003.

Prasad Singh, Bhagwan and Mohanty, Shukla, (ed.). Children at Work-Problems and Policy Options. Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corporation and Indian Society of Labour Economics, 1993.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. Impunity and Human Rights in International Law and Practice.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Shujaat, Qindeel. “Child Labour: A Vicious Cycle,” in The State of Pakistan’s Children.

Islamabad: SPARC, 2006.

S. Sharifuddin Pirzada. Fundamental Rights and Constitutional Remedies in Pakistan.

State of Human Rights in 2001. Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, Maktaba Jadeed Press, 2002.

Smith, Sidonie and Kay Schaffer. Human Rights and Narrated Lives: The Ethics of

Recognition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Taylor, Benjamin J. and Wilney Fred. Labour Relations Law. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hill, 1975.

SUDHAAR. Preventing Child Labour in Sialkot: Opportunities and Challenges. Sialkot:

SUDHAAR, Education Programme, Annual Repot-1998.

Shujaat, Qindeel. “Child Labour: A Vicious Cycle,” in The State of Pakistan’s Children. Islamabad: SPARC, 2006.

Shandilya, Tapan Kumar and Shakeel Ahmad Khan. Child Labour A Global Challenge.

New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications, 2003.

Schwarzkopf, Jutta. Unpicking Gender: The Social Construction of Gender in the Lancashire Cotton Weaving Industry 1880-1914. Aldershot; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2004.

Schevill, Ferdinand. A History of Europe From the Reformation to the Present Days. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1951.

Sarwar, Muhammad. Introduction of Political Science. Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana, 2001.

Thesis, Lahore: University of the Punjab, Social Work Department, 1993.

Samuels, Harriet. “A Human Rights Campaign? The Campaign to Abolish Child Slavery in Hong Kong 1919-1938.” Journal of Human Rights 6, no. 3 (2007): 361-384.

Rigg, Jonathan. Southeast Asia: Human Landscape of Modernization and Development.

New York: Routledge, 1997.

Nevile, Pran. Lahore: A Sentimental Journey. New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India, 1997.

Muhammad, Shafi. Labour Code of Pakistan. Karachi: Bureau of Labour Publications, 1982.

Marshall, F. Roy, Allan G. King and Vermon Briggs. Labour Economics: Wages,

Employment and Trade Unionism. Homwood: Richard D. Irwin, 1980.

Mahmood, Nasir, “Need For efforts Against Child Labour Stressed.” The Nation, Lahore: 4 February 2010.

Lavador, S.F., and Nasim Ahmad (ed.). Wool & Carpet Review, Special Issue. Lahore:

Naseem Tahir Sheikh Publisher, 2001.

Jillani, Anees. Cries Unheard: Juvenile Justice in Pakistan. Islamabad: SPARC, 1999.

Jillani, Anees. “Child Labour: Perpetuating Exploitation.” Dawn, Lahore: 25 January 2009.

Dr.Khalifa Abdul Hakim. The Prophet (PBUH) and Message.

Cranford, Cynthia J. Self-Employed Workers Organize: Law, Policy, and Unions.

Montreal; Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 200

Childs, Michael J. Labour's Apprentices: Working-Class Lads in Late Victorian and

Edwardian England. Montreal; Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.

Chaudhry, Muhammad Sharif. Human Rights in Islam. Lahore: All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress, 1993.

Beauchamp, Edward R. and Anthony R. Welch. Third World Education: Quality and

Equality. New York: Garland Science, 2000.

Alli, Benjamin O. Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health & Safety. Geneva:

International Labour Office Bureau International Du Travail , 2001.

Ali, Amjad. Labour Legislation and Trade Unions in India and Pakistan. London: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Akhtar, Sajjad and Saadiya Razzaq. Child Domestic Labour in Pakistan: Overview, Issues And Testable Hypothesis. Islamabad: Centre for Research on Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution (Crprid), 2005.

Syed Shabbir Raza Rizvi. The Fundamental Rights and Judicial Review in Pakistan.

Stephen Gorosz, Jetbetson Q.C, Peter Duffy Q.C. Human Rights

Henry J.Steiner &Philip Alston. International Human Rights in Context law, Political Morals.

Micheal R.Anderson. Changing Concepts of Rights and Justice in South Asia.

Mehboob Pervaiz Awan. Civil Liberties, Human Rights and Constitutional Protections.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Nizakat Ali Bhand, Dr. Touseef Iqbal, Liaquat Ali Bhand


Metrics Loading ...