THE PERCEIVED LEVELS OF INTOLERANCE FOR PRESS CRITICISM IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY
PDF

Keywords

Social intolerance
Pakistani society
Press criticism
Freedom of expression
Self-censorship
Threats to journalists

How to Cite

Hussain, F., Aleem, N., & Faisal, S. (2021). THE PERCEIVED LEVELS OF INTOLERANCE FOR PRESS CRITICISM IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 60(1), 81–94. https://doi.org/10.46568/jssh.v60i1.383

Abstract

This study examines the existence, intensity and impacts of intolerance for Press criticism in Pakistani society. It’s generally believed that intolerance for Press criticism leads to professional and psychological complexes for the Press to play its role as a voice for unvoiced and to hold those in power accountable because the Press’s role as the Watchdog compulsively needs high capacities of tolerance in the society to understand the realities and habituate rationalism. As working journalists have to face the direct reaction from masses regarding Press criticism so this paper explores journalist’s perceptions about the presence of intolerance in the societal frame of Pakistan regarding Press’s criticism using survey technique under Likert Scale.  The study also incorporates the impacts of intolerance on professionalism in media that induce threats to journalists and compel them to exercise self-censorship which ultimately results in content biases, depriving the citizens of fundamental right of expression. The conclusion provides guidelines for policy making on the subject of Press freedom and social coherence. Also, this study enhances understandings regarding the social sphere of the country and gauges the level of intolerance for media discourses.

https://doi.org/10.46568/jssh.v60i1.383
PDF

References

Asma and Muhammad;”History of Sectarianism in Pakistan: Implications for Lasting Peace: J Pol Sci Pub Aff 2017; 5:4 ; DOI: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000291; https://www.longdom.org/open-access/history-of-sectarianism-in-pakistan-implications-for-lasting-peace-2332-0761-1000291.pdf

Basit. Abdul; ; “Pakistan Stock Exchange: New Wave of Ethno-Separatist Violence?; South Asian Journal; (July 17; 2020); http://southasiajournal.net/pakistan-stock-exchange-attack-new-wave-of-ethno-separatist-violence/

Chiara V; Ramon Portugal F; Jeanson R “Social intolerance is a consequence; not a cause; of dispersal in spiders”. (2019) PLoS Biol 17(7): e3000319. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000319

Constitution of Pakistan 1973; Chapter 1; article 19; 19A. http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1333523681_951.pdf

CPJ; “As bombing spread; Pakistan deadliest nation” (Dec15; 2010). https://cpj.org/reports/2010/12/journalists-killed-pakistan-deadliest-nation-Press/

CPJ; “Pakistan among the countries where killers of journalists go unpunished” (Oct 29; 2020). https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/736446-pakistan-among-countries-where-killers-of-journalists-go-unpunished-says-cpj

Daily Dawn; “50 shades of inequality in Pakistan”; (May 14; 2015); https://www.dawn.com/news/1178703

Daily Dawn; “Peshawar Press Club Attack (Dec 12; 2009). https://www.dawn.com/news/510394

Daily Dawn; “Sectarian Tensions’ Sep 21; 2020. https://www.dawn.com/news/1580818

Daily Dawn. “A leaf from history: Language frenzy in Sindh” Oct 6; 2012. https://www.dawn.com/news/754685/a-leaf-from-history-language-frenzy-in-sindh

Freedom House. https://freedomhouse.org/countries/freedom-world/scores

Gunaratne; Shelton A. “The Media in Asia: An Overview.” Gazette (Leiden; Netherlands) 61; no. 3–4 (July 1999): 197–223. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016549299061003002.

Harrison G. Gough “Studies of Social Intolerance: I. Some Psychological and Sociological Correlates of Anti-Semitism; The Journal of Social Psychology”; (1951) 33:2; 237-246; DOI: 10.1080/00224545.1951.9921815

Hussain; Fazal; and Auj-e Kamal. “THREATS TO JOURNALISTS IN SINDH: EVENTS AND PERCEPTIONS (2000-2017)”. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 57; no. 2 (November 12; 2020): 193-209. Accessed December 4; 2020. https://jsshuok.com/oj/index.php/jssh/article/view/63.

Hussain; Fazal. “Gender Discrimination in Media As Workplace: A Study of Media Environment in Sindh”. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 18; no. 1 (March 8; 2019): 23-42. Accessed December 4; 2020. https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/23.

Hutchison; Marc L.; Salvatore Schiano; and Jenifer Whitten-Woodring. "When the fourth estate becomes a fifth column: The effect of media freedom and social intolerance on civil conflict." The International Journal of Press/Politics 21; no. 2 (2016): 165-187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216632362

Hutchison; Marc L.; Salvatore Schiano; and Jenifer Whitten-Woodring. "When the fourth estate becomes a fifth column: The effect of media freedom and social intolerance on civil conflict." The International Journal of Press/Politics 21; no. 2 (2016): 165-187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216632362

Mustafa.Ghulam & Nawa.Adil. “The Separation of East Pakistan: Socio-Economic Factors” Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies. Vol 2; issue 1 (2014). https://www.academia.edu/42789130/Asian_Journal_of_Multidisciplinary_Studies_The_Separation_Of_East_Pakistan_Socio_Economic_Factors

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2016) .” Population by Mother Tongue” http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//tables/POPULATION%20BY%20MOTHER%20TONGUE.pdf

PBS; “Population by Religion” http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files//tables/POPULATION%20BY%20RELIGION.pdf

The Nation; “Hooligans attack Karachi Press Club”.( March 28; 2016). https://nation.com.pk/28-Mar-2016/hooligans-attack-karachi-Press-club

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/

Wyatt. Wendy. "Press Criticism" in: The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies Online. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9781118841570.iejs0104

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Fazli Hussain, Dr Noreen Aleem, Samreen Faisal

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...