Prior to 1937, the Muslim leaders in British India were optimistic about the Hindu-Muslim unity and consequently believed in a united India. Even the stalwarts of the All India Muslim League who, later, resorted to launching a movement for a separate homeland, had initially joined the platform of the Indian National Congress. For a long time, Mr. Jinnah himself remained a member of both the Congress and League simultane-ously. He was so anxious for inter-communal harmony in India that Mrs. Sarojini Naidu described him as "the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity". Other Muslim leaders also worked hard to promote this unity and to keep India as one country. But gradually all of them were disillusioned and disappointed by the attitude and acts of the Congress and the Hindu-Mahasabha. The anti-Muslim and dictatorial policies of the Congress ultimately. sconvinced the Muslims that they could not live with the Hindus in a common Federation with one government at the centre. So they were compelled to seek independence not only against the British but also against the Hindus. Accordingly, the Muslims demanded a separate homeland through the historic Lahore Resolution, passed on 23rd March, 1940. This resolution finally marked the 'parting of ways' for the two major communities living in the Subcontinent. Seven years later, the process of separatism was consummated with the division of India and the creation of Pakistan in August 1947.
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