Dispositional Hope
State hope
Gender difference

How to Cite

Bushra Khan, B., Anjum Ara, A., & Sumayya Salim, S. (2012). STUDY ON HOPE: AN ANALYSIS. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 51(1), 1–10. Retrieved from


The present study aimed at exploring gender differences with reference to dispositional and state hopes. Furthermore the stability of hope irrespective of rewarding and frustrating situation was explored, in which stability of hope, through correlation between dispositional and state hope, in male and female participants separately was also explored. Study was conducted in two sessions. In the first session participants were requested to fill the Dispositional Hope Scale. Second session was held after a gap of one day where participants were randomly divided in two groups; reward and frustration. They were given an anagram task of jumble words to be solved with researcher’s comment on their performance that act as a source of inducement of feeling of reward and frustration, followed by State Hope Scale. No significant gender difference was found in dispositional and state hope. However, with respect to stability of hope significant positive correlation between dispositional and state hope was found in total sample including male and female participants. Whereas, stability of hope on the basis of gender,there was a significant positive correlation between dispositional and state hope among males of both reward and frustration group, indicating stability of hope in males irrespective of situation, while there was insignificant correlation in females; positive in reward and negative in frustration indicating
the decrease in level of hope in case of facing frustrating situation. Probable reasons for the findings are discussed.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2012 Dr. Bushra Khan, Prof. Anjum Ara, Sumayya Salim


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